Cornelius Maddox, 1651-1705

Cornelius Maddox/Maddock was the son of Edward and Ellinor Maddox of Shropshire, England.  He was baptized on 4 October 1651 in the 12th-century Church of St. Michael, in Munslow Parish, Shropshire, England.[i]  We have no additional records of him until he reappears in 1680, when a sponsor named John Reddich was paid for his earlier transport into Charles County, Maryland.[ii]

Family legend contends that the first of our Maddox immigrants to America arrived under duress — that he was banished to the Colonies when his parents discovered he had fallen in love with an unapproved girl.[ii.a.]  Stranger family stories have proven true, and this one fits well into the documentary gap of Cornelius’ early life and into the context of his father’s apparent religious fervor.  Cornelius’ father notably removed a daughter-in-law from his will because as a widow she married again without his approval.

By 1680 Cornelius’ father was a well-established member of the Maryland and Virginia Colonies, begging the question of Cornelius’ actual arrival date.  Besides the family legend of his arrival, it’s possible that he remained in Shropshire until his arrival in Maryland, or perhaps he lived in Stafford County, Virginia, with his father.  Nonetheless, 1680 was a year of superlatives, including the brightest comet of the 17th century and the first recorded tornado in the American Colonies… and an auspicious transition for Cornelius.


Cornelius Maddox was baptized in this font in St. Michael’s Church, Munslow, England.  His brothers and sisters also were baptized in this font.  The church includes 15th-century stained glass windows and original pews.

Cornelius was described in deeds and other official papers as a merchant and landowner in the Nanjemoy area of Charles County.  He bought the 60-acre plot called Tatshall (a.k.a. Tatall/Totsall/Tattsall/Tasch Hall/Nuthall) from John Butcher for 5,000 pounds of tobacco in 1684,[iii] and sold it to his father-in-law James Smallwood for 3,000 pounds of tobacco on 27 May 1688.[iv]  Tatshall lay east of Portobacco Fresh and west of Zekiah Swamp (where the Piscataway Indians had a fort), “adjoining to the land called Moores Ditch [a.k.a. Moore’s Lodge] at the exterior bound thereof,” and abutting land owned by Shaw, Lindsey and Smallwood.[iv.a.]  This would place Tatshall next to Charles County’s first courthouse (1674-1727) at Moore’s Lodge — a perfect business location at the time.  A west-east stream called Maddox Branch probably defined Tatshall‘s southern perimeter.  Based on this information, we have located Tatshall at 38.481510, -76.968192.


The Colonial-era Johnsontown Tobacco Barn stood in the vicinity of Tatshall.  The barn was moved to St. Mary’s for its historical significance but then disappeared.  (Photo: Maryland State Archives)

We suspect Cornelius received additional land or business capital from his father Edward.  Cornelius’ financial and social success, despite only one record of land ownership (and his possible loss of 2,000 pounds on the Tatshall sale!), is confusing.  His sons’ numerous and large land purchases in the early 1700s imply that Cornelius passed on a significant inheritance to them, and it’s likely that we have not found the full record of Cornelius’ holdings.  It’s possible, for example, that Cornelius’ 1684 purchase of Tatshall was just a minor part of greater land transfers related to his father Edward’s 1684 sale of the nearby 500-acre Nanjemoy tract, and that Cornelius received more acreage in the transfer.  The same year that his father sold the 500-acre Nanjemoy tract, Cornelius would purchase Tatshall, get married, and sue his father for 1000 pounds.

Nanjemoy — known as Durham Parish or Crossroads before 1832 — is an Algonquin Indian name that means “the haunt” or “the home of the raccoon,” or “they go down the river” – depending on who’s asked.[iv.b.]  It was once a center of agricultural commerce for the southeast, second only to Charleston, S.C.  From 1730 to the 1930s, Nanjemoy’s main port — Port Tobacco — received ships that carried goods such as tobacco and pulpwood to ports around the region.  Cornelius is known to have made trips aboard the America and Friendship from Liverpool, England, in 1683 and 1685, and he received at least two major shipments from London.[v] [vi] [vii] [viii]

Charles County as depicted on a circa-1685 map by Christopher Browne

Charles County, Maryland, and Stafford County, Virginia, as depicted on a circa-1685 map by the Englishman Christopher Browne

Twice in 1681, just a year after his reported arrival in Maryland, Cornelius was paid by the governor and General Assembly of Maryland, first with 1,050 pounds of tobacco (a cash crop) and again with 1,800 pounds of tobacco.[ix]  His annual tobacco receipts increased significantly as the years passed.  Compared to other Charles County distributions, these were large payments.  Cornelius was on the business side of the tobacco industry, and not personally planting and harvesting.[x]

Cornelius’ early and relatively large tobacco receipts probably indicate an earlier establishment of a business, perhaps under his father’s tutelage.   A chronology of dealings with Thomas Hussey by Edward and Cornelius Maddox in both Charles County, Maryland and Stafford County, Virginia, demonstrates a likely business handoff from Edward to Cornelius (see Hussey-Maddox interaction 1600s).  The chronology shows that Dr. Edward Maddocks dealt directly with Thomas Hussey in Charles County, Maryland, in 1681-1686.  After 1686 (just after Cornelius’ marriage), Cornelius generally deals with Thomas Hussey, receiving payments.  Separately, Thomas Hussey was an early owner of Moore’s Ditch, the property abutting Cornelius’ Tatshall tract, and Hussey passed Moore’s Ditch to his daughter Rachell (Hussey) Ashford and her husband Michael Ashford.  Michael Ashford also was an early owner of Tatshall.[x.a.]

On 16 March 1685, at 34 years of age, Cornelius wed the 15-year-old Mary Smallwood, daughter of James and Ester Evans Nichols Smallwood.[xi][xii][xiii] James Smallwood was a Maryland militia Colonel by 1700, a member of Godfrey’s Rangers, the Sheriff of Charles County, a Charles County assemblyman, and a vestryman for the Piscattaway Parish.  Given the dearth of marriageable women in Colonial Maryland, their union was a sign of a strong relationship between the Smallwood and Maddox families — a relationship that was borne out in numerous inter-family land deals within Charles County and Prince George’s County.[xiv]  Cornelius’ sale of Tatshall to his father-in-law James Smallwood is one example.[xv] The Smallwood family, especially the later General William Smallwood, would go on to play a lead military role in the American Revolution, and the Maddox family would side with them against the British.

Cornelius and Mary had the following children.[xvi][xvii]

1. James Maddox, 1686 – 1735, married Mary Hawkins [xviii.a] in 1714 and had four children.[xviii] James probably was a leading inn keeper in Port Tobacco (originally called Chandler’s Town, and then officially named Charles Town in 1727, but always called Port Tobacco).  Port Tobacco was known for its inns, where many society events were held. [xviii.b]  James purchased Port Tobacco lot #62 on October 13, 1729 and then on May 6, 1732 he purchased lot #61.  These purchases included the requirement to build within 18 months, but any original building on lot #61 is now gone and a newer home stands on lot #62.  James purchased lot #61 the same day that his cousin John Smallwood purchased lot #65 and his brother-in-law Thomas Hawkins purchased #58.  By making these purchases, James Maddox helped establish Port Tobacco as the new county seat of government,  in the very same way his grandfather Edward had helped establish Marlboro Town, Virginia, in 1690.  The location of lot #61 has been documented by Carol Cowherd in her research paper, “Using Land Records to Look for Port Tobacco in the Eighteenth Century,” and probably was centered near 38.512326, -77.017673.


James Maddox’s Port Tobacco lot #61 is visible in a 2011 study of the village. We can assume that his lot #62 was just above lot #61. (Image: Carol Cowherd)

In 1728, James Maddock purchased the original Charles County courthouse and jail at Moore’s Lodge, and his activity there is documented in a thorough archaeological report from 2008.[xix]  James also owned the 150-acre New Exchange, possibly his son Notley’s [xx.b] birthplace, and 188-acre Bachelors Hope plantations.[xx.a.] James’ probable descendants James and Notley Maddox served as Charles County representatives to a committee in Port Tobacco to vote for local members of the Continental Congress, on 18 November 1774, along with other county leaders.[xx.f.] Another genealogist claims that James’ son Notley “would become Charles Town’s representative to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia” – possibly a conflation of the 1774 committee participation.  James Maddocke died intestate in 1735, and his estate was inventoried on 6 May 1735. [xx]

2. John Maddox, born ca. 1687-8 and died in 1748, was an innkeeper and married Ann.

3. Edward Maddox, 1691-1771, was an innkeeper with his brother James in Port Tobacco. Edward married Jane Speaks/Speake, daughter of John Speaks/Speake and Winifred Wheeler Speaks/Speake,[xx.d.] and they attended Durham Parish – Edward had his own named pew there – and according to his 4 May 1771 will they had nine children: 1. Mary Maddox Skinner 1718-, 2. Elizabeth Maddox Posey 1724-, 3. Jane Maddox Mordack 1726-, 4. Rhonda Maddox Williams 1728-, 5. William Maddox 1731-1784, 6. James Maddox 1733-bf1771, 7. John Maddox 1734-1800, 8. Anna Maddox Brawner 1735-, 9. Edward Maddox, Jr. 1737-1800.  Their daughter Elizabeth married Edward’s brother Benjamin’s father-in-law, John Posey.  His daughter Ann/Anna married William Brawner. [xx.e.]  According to his will, Edward owned Damhause Level, Blue Plains and land adjoining Edward Maddox (probably his son).  Edward and Jane were reportedly buried at Durham Parish’s Christ Church cemetery according to one family historian, but their names are not included in the church’s burial records.

St Charles Hotel (aka Brawner Hotel)

The St. Charles Hotel, pictured here, was eventually called the Brawner Hotel and was advertised in the late 18th century as having 25 rooms and a large dance hall. James, Edward, John and Walter might have been its innkeepers.[xx.c.]

4. Benjamin Maddox (I), 1693 – 1770, was twelve years old when Cornelius died.  He married Mary Wheeler[xxi] and then Frances Posey.[xxii] [xxiii]  Benjamin (I) is our direct ascendant and his full biography can be read here.

5. Phoebe Maddox, born ca. 1695 and died in 1745, married Joseph Clements.[xxiv] [xxv]

6. Walter Maddox, 1697 – 1773, was noted as a minor apprenticed to his brother James Maddox in 1720.[xxvi]  Walter’s will does not include a wife’s name and instead he awards his entire estate to his brother Cornelius [xxvi.a.].  One genealogist has claimed that Walter was married to Eleanor Luckett, but this information probably was mistakenly taken from the will of Walter Maddox (d. 1778), son of Benjamin (I) [xxvi.b.].

Based on Cornelius’ business in Port Tobacco and his one known land location, just southeast of Port Tobacco, it is likely that he was a member of Christ Church, a long-since disappeared Anglican church that was established in 1683 in Port Tobacco.  His son Edward, however, was part of Durham Parish, a small but enduring Anglican assembly first housed in a log cabin in 1661, and later in a magnolia-shaded brick church, just south of some of Edward’s property.[xxvii]  Cornelius’ son Edward had a pew, and his name is evident in church records.[xxviii]  The brick church stands today and its cemetery contains the remains of some associated families.[xxix]

The Maddoxes’ Durham Parish in Nanjemoy, Maryland.

Cornelius reportedly arrived in the Colony shortly after Bacon’s Rebellion, which had resulted from frustration over the nearby Virginia Governor’s lack of action in guarding against Native American attacks.  From Cornelius’ participation in the church and his business relationships, it’s clear that he benefited from the Colonial effort and was a proponent of its success.  Nothing in the records illustrates his position – and the colonists’ dire situation – better than a July 1697 letter copied by the Maryland Governor into the Colonial Court records, in which Cornelius is warranted to pursue the capture of a local Pomunkey Native American named Esquire Tom, who had escaped across the Potomac River to Stafford County, Virginia.  Esquire Tim was wanted for the murders of an English woman and her children:

“Warrant for the taking of Esq Tom an Indian etc. This is by Mr Cornelius Maddox who is design’d to Endeavour to find a Pomunkey Indian call’d Esq Tom, who is accused to be one of them that murdered the Woman and Children in Virginia, Therefore would have you assist him what in you lies towards the discovery and taking of the Indian and for soe doing this shall be yor Warrant Given under my hand the day and year above Written.”[xxx]

The Governor’s letter warranting Cornelius’ manhunt, complete with doodles.

It seems, based on numerous court documents, that the Colony was on the verge of a disastrous war with the surrounding Native Americans, and Esquire Tom had attempted to incite the war by killing the woman (scalping her) and her children, and then falsely blaming the killings on Virginia’s Piscataway Native American emperor.  Besides this incident, that summer the Governor recorded problems with pirates on the Chesapeake Bay, another killing of an Englishman at the head of the Potomac River, and insolent drunkenness of laborers at some of the Colony’s inns.

Cornelius’ father had served as a Justice of the Peace in Stafford County, Virginia, and was the step-father of Col. George Mason II, who led the Virginia Rangers at the time.  It’s possible that Cornelius’ step-brother drew him into the intrigue.  On 28 July 1697, Cornelius received a reward of five pounds sterling for capturing Esquire Tom, though Esquire Tom would eventually escape Mason’s custody and commit another murder a few years later.  The Piscataway Native Americans abandoned their Zechia Swamp fort (near Cornelius’ Tatshall property) shortly after the Esquire Tom intrigue.

Cornelius died earlier than most Maddox men (approximately 54) and without a will.  His estate was inventoried 9 March 1705/6,[xxxi] and first son James administered the estate in lieu of Cornelius’ wife Mary.  Cornelius was noted as a “pauper” in the administrative record.[xxxi.a.]  But his inventory (see page 1 and page 2) includes luxuries like silks, wigs, pewter, books and more – perhaps meaning that the label “pauper” was administrative shorthand for someone without holdings or in debt, and not a description of someone impoverished.  Perhaps, because of his age and an unexpected end, he had some business debts.

How Cornelius and Mary’s children attained their “landed” positions in Charles County despite Cornelius’ early death requires more research.  There’s no indication that Cornelius passed land to any of his children.  His son Edward was just 14 years old when Cornelius died, but Edward would eventually own hundreds of acres and run the leading inn in Port Tobacco with his brother James.  After Cornelius’ death, his widow Mary Smallwood Maddox would marry the prominent planter Robert Taylor and she would produce three more children.  The Maddox children might have benefited from Robert Taylor’s wealth, and from the Smallwood family’s prominence and wealth.

Disease, famine and violence frequently visited the Colony’s early settlers, and Cornelius’ lack of preparation for his own death begs the question of its circumstances, but there is no hint of its cause in any known records.  His known willingness to hunt fugitives like Esquire Tom in the wilderness adds to the “mystique.”  The Spring of 1705 was a significant “time of danger” with the Piscataway Native Americans, according to the Governor’s notes, and Cornelius’ father-in-law (the leader of the local militia) might have drawn Cornelius into the effort to secure the frontier.  The Native Americans killed numerous colonists that Spring; perhaps Cornelius was one of them.

If Cornelius was a member of Christ Church in Port Tobacco, then he probably would have been buried in its graveyard, which has disappeared into the soil along with the original church.[xxxii]  The National Society of the Colonial Dames of America includes Cornelius Maddox among their lineages.  The Order of the First Families of Maryland includes Cornelius as a qualifying ancestor.

[i] “Registers of the Parish Munslow,” transcribed and copyrighted by Mel Lockie, 2011,, p. 93.

[ii] Maryland Patents Liber WC2, Folio 199, 9 July 1680.

Land was claimed for Cornelius Maddox’s transport in 1680 according to Early Settlers of Maryland, Gus Skordas, 1986, p. WC2.199.  John Redich, a merchant, claimed the land for transporting Cornelius and a Smallwood on 9 July 1680.

Cornelius also is listed as “Cornelius Maddox (1680-1705/6) MD; m. Mary Smallwood. Transportee.” in Seventeenth Century Ancestors, Supplement Number Two, 1979-1988, of Members of the National Society Colonial Dames XVII Century, compiled by Mrs. George L. Bott, 1988, p. 40.

[ii.a.] This story was relayed by Myrtle (Smith) Maddox (1900-1982), a granddaughter of Joseph Maddox (1800-1884) by marriage to James Martin Maddox.

[iii] Charles County Circuit Court Liber L, Page 51
26 Dec 1684; Indenture from Jno Butcher and Mary his wife to Cornelius Maddocks; for 5,000# tobacco a parcel called TATSHALL bounded by Moore’s Ditch

[iv] Abstracts of Charles County, Maryland, Court and Land Records, p. 1.; Charles County Circuit Court Liber P, p. 1.

[iv.a.] 1642-1753 Rent Rolls Charles County MD Hundred – Port Tobacco: Rent Roll page/Sequence: 322-147: TATTSALL: 60 acres; Possession of – 60 Acres – Smallwood, James Col: Surveyed 7 May 1681 for Michael Ashford adjoining to the land called MOORES DITCH at the exterior bound thereof at a White Oak standing by a run: Other Tracts Mentioned: MOORES DITCH; ; ; Conveyance notes – 60 Acres – John Smallwood from James Smallwood; 10 March 1718, 60 Acres – John Smallwood from Michael Ashford; 14 April 1726.

[iv.b.] Calvert Richard Posey, long-time resident of Nanjemoy, claims in an oral history that it means “the haunt” or “the home of the raccoon,” but a Southern Maryland News Online article on 31 Aug 2007 claims it means “they go down the river.”  Regardless, the place probably got its name from the one-time resident Nanjemoy indian tribe.  See CALVERT R. POSEY, SR., b. 1924, November 13, 2001, Interviewed by Michael Kline with Rick Posey (Mr. Posey’s son), Peggy Palmer, Carrie Kline at the Nanjemoy Creek Environmental Center in Charles County, Maryland.  Southern Maryland Folklife Project, St. Mary’s College of Maryland.  The transcript is available at

[v] Cornelius sailed from Liverpool to Maryland on the America on 7-16 November 1683 and the Friendship on 1-8 October 1685, according to Complete Book of Emigrants, 1661-1699, Peter Wilson Coldham, Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1990, pp. 433 and 550. Public Record Office PRO: E190/1345/13 and  PRO: E190/1346/16.

[vi] Charles County of the 17th and 18th centuries is best described in The Price of Nationhood: The American Revolution in Charles County, Jean B. Lee, W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 1994.

[vii] Southern Maryland News Online, 31 August 2007,

[viii] Charles County Maryland: A History, Bicentennial Edition, Heritage Books, 1976, pp. 53-78.

[ix] In comparison, most other planters received just a few hundred pounds, and only about a dozen out of the hundreds of planters listed were paid 1,800 pounds, according to Maryland Assembly Proceedings, August-September 1681, Liber W.H., p. 208. In November 1681 Cornelius was paid 1,040 pounds, according to Maryland Assembly Proceedings, November 1681, Liber W.H., p. 248.

[x] Tobacco Culture: The Mentality of the Great Tidewater Planters on the Eve of Revolution, T.H. Breen, Princeton Paperbacks, 1987.

[x.a.] Deed from Charles County, Maryland, Nov. 13, 1677: Thomas Hussey, of Maryland, Gent. and Johannah his wife deeded to Rachell Ashford, natural daughter of Johannah and wife of Michael Ashford, of Charles County, Carpenter, for love and affectios ‘Moore’s Ditch’ in Charles County on the west side of Zachia Swamp adjoining the land of George Goodrick and Robert Goodrick. For want of issue after the death of Rachell Ashford then ye said Thomas Hussey & Johanah his wife do by these presents grant ye said land to Mary Hussey and Elizabeth Hussey their natural daughters equally and for want of such issue then ye said Thomas Hussey and Johanna his wife unto ye heirs of Her ye said Johannah sister Margaret wife of Francis Pope, of Charles County deceased.

[xi] Mary Smallwood was born on 2 November 1670, according to Keith, Arthur L. “Smallwood Family of Southern Maryland,” Maryland Historical Magazine, Volume XXII, June 1927, p. 148.  “The Smallwood Family of Md. & Va.” comp. by Mildred A. McDonnell, 1970, pp. 6-8; “The Emison Families Supplement,” comp. by James Wade Emison, Vincennes, Ind. 1962.

[xii] La Plata. Lib M No 1, fol.27.  March 16, 1685/6 James Smallwood made gift of one cow and one mare to daughter Mary Maddocks.

[xiii] La Plata, Lib. S, No. 1, fol. 342.  Will of John Smallwood (son of James Smallwood) dated March 20, 1693/4, prob Aug 6, 1694 “I give to my sister Mary Maddocks the other 50 acres Joyning unto Pryors land unto her heirs forever, and I give unto my brother-in-law Cornelius Maddocks one bay horse with a white face cropt of one year and (illegible) on the other.”

[xiv] The dearth of women, and the plight of their suitors, is well explained in Creole Gentlemen: The Maryland Elite, 1691-1776, Trevor Burnard, Routledge Press, 2002.

[xv] Charles County Circuit Court Liber P, Page 1

[xvi] “The Smallwood Family of Md & Va” gives four children for Cornelius Maddox, and the book by James Emison lists the same four, but adds an elder son, James Maddox, and a younger son, Walter Maddox. As the late Mr. Emison, an attorney, spent considerable time researching courthouse records and Maryland Hall of Records, Roberta Wiley assumes he had proof. It was probably the Md. Tax and Hundred List for Walter and James Maddocke with the Rent Roll location and name of their property which provided circumstantial evidence for the two additional sons, as well as Md. Apprentices Bk. K-2.

[xvii] Anne Taylor, daughter of Cornelius’s widow Mary Smallwood Maddox Taylor, probate of Aug 10, 1745 lists “of the half blood: John Maddox, Elizabeth Maddox, Benjamin Maddox, Phebe Clements wife of Joseph Clements”. (MD Probate records 21.434 A. CH £12.12.4 £6.10.2)

[xviii] James is shown to be the first son of Cornelius in The book Abstracts of the Testamentary Proceedings of the Prerogative Court of Maryland, Volume X: 1704-1707, Liber 19C:35 (page 75), which lists a “bond of James Maddox administrator of Cornelius Maddox (pauper),” dated 7 March 1705/6, and explains that “Mary Maddox the widow [of Cornelius] renounced administration, in favor of the eldest son James Maddox,” dated 25 February 1705/6.  Benjamin Adams secured the bond.  Additional evidence of James’ children is in Charles Co Act. Bk. 18 p. 133-134;Act. Bk 15 p. 58-59; Inventory Bk 20 p. 446-449; Walter Maddox was apprenticed to his brother James (Appr. Bk. K-2).

[xviii.a] There is no question that James Maddox’s wife was Mary. Evidence supports that she was Mary Hawkins. In 1731, James purchased three acres in Charlestown as witnessed by Henry Holland Hawkins, one of the six justices of the Charles County Court, and brother to Mary (see note xix). In 1735, James’s administrative account was settled with Alex Smith Hawkins, Mary’s nephew, as one of the sureties (see note xx). Again, in 1747, Notley Maddox, James’s son, sold 125 acres of “Troublesome” to his cousin, Alex Smith Hawkins.

[xviii.b.] An excellent description of Port Tobacco in its Colonial heyday is available in Hayden, Ethel.  “Port Tobacco, Lost Town of Maryland,” Baltimore: Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 100, No. 3, pp. 284-297.  Available online at

[xix] Charles County Land Records, Liber M#2 Page 249: At the request of Mr. John Hanson Sr of CC, the following deed was recorded this May 13, 1731.
Apr 26, [1731] from Robt Hanson, John King, Henry Holland Hawkins, Robert Yates, Thos Stone, and Richard Tarvin, Gent, Justices of CC Court, to James Maddock of CC, innholder. By an act made at a session of Assembly begun and held at Annapolis on Tuesday, Oct 10, 1728, entitled an act for erection of a courthouse and prison on the east side of the head of Portobacco Cr at a place called Chandler Town in CC, and for making sale of the old courthouse and prison, a majority of sd Justices are authorized to sell the old courthouse and prison, with the land thereto belonging. At a Court of the Lord Proprietary held in Charles Town on the 2nd Tuesday in Nov last past, the Justices, in open court. exposed the old courthouse and prison and its land, to public sale, and then and there sold the same to afd James Maddock, he being the best purchaser, for 1505 lbs of tobacco. Now this deed further witnesses that the Justices afd, have conveyed to James Maddox all that parcel of land whereon the old courthouse and prison do stand, containing 3 acres (as by the certificate and plat thereof, entered in the records of CC Liber V fol 277 may appear). Signed – Robt Hanson, John King, Henry Hawkins, Robt Yates, Thos Stone, Richard Tarvin. Wit – Geo Dent*, Jno Hanson.

Page 250.  At the request of Mr. Jno Hanson Sr of CC, the following assignment was recorded May 14, 1731.  Apr 27, 1731 from James Maddock of CC, innholder, to John Hanson of CC, for 1200 lbs of tobacco and also for other good causes, all that parcel of land in CC which the afd James purchased of the Justices of CC Court, containing 3 acres, as by the deed dated Apr 16. Signed – James Maddoke. Wit – Robt Hanson, Henry Hawkins. This deed was acknowledged by James Maddock and Mary, his wife.

[xx] James Maddocke died intestate in 1735, and his estate was inventoried on 6 May 1735. Source: Charles County, MD Liber 20, Fol 446-449.  His final Administrative Account was recorded on March 4, 1740.  Present to represent the deceased were his widow, Mary, and four unnamed children.  Her sureties were John Martin, Sr. and Alex Smith Hawkins.  Source: Charles County Register of Wills, Administration Accounts, 1738-59, folio 24.  John Martin was Notley’s father-in-law since by November 10, 1737 Notley Maddocke had married Elizabeth Martin, the daughter of John and Elizabeth Martin.  A deed was recorded on November 10, 1737 from John Martin to Notley Maddocke, “his son in law.” Land Records O#2, f. 307 11/10/1737.

[xx.a.] James Maddox’s two known plantations are described in Charles County Land Records, Liber H#2, Page 168, and 1642-1753 Rent Rolls Charles County, Maryland Hundred – Port Tobacco: Rent Roll page/Sequence: 320-130.

[xx.b.] After his death, the lots in Charles Town were sold.  A deed dated November 11, 1741, from Notley Maddocke, of Charles County, Port Tobacco Parish, and his mother Mary, the widow of James, conveyed lots #61 & 62 to Joseph Noble, Jr.  On May 5, 1748, in another deed, Mary Maddocke makes an arrangement with her son Notley, for her use of the plantation for the remainder of her natural life.  Charles County Rent Rolls (1733-1775), show Mary Maddox in possession of 94 acres of New Exchange.  The 1783 Tax list of the sixth district of Charles county listed Notley Maddocke, Jr. owning 89 acres of the New Exchange with Joseph Piekrel owning 70 acres. (CCLR, Book O#2 f. 531, CCLR, Liber Z#2, f. 25)

[xx.c.] See “St. Charles Hotel,” Historic Port Tobacco Maryland, at

[xx.d.]  John Speake will, innholder, Charles County, 4 Dec 1731, “To wife Mary, extx., lot and dwelling houses in Charles Town, co. afsd., during life; at her decease to grandson John, son of Thomas Speake; and personalty, including some left her by her former husband James Semmes.  To sons John, Richard and Thomas and dau. Jane, wife of Edward Maddocke, personalty, and residue of estate equally.  Test:  Francis Ware, Allon Hewton, Robert Hanson.  20.337. Maryland Calendar of Wills: Volume 6

[xx.e.] Charles Co Land Records 1752-1756 Liber A#3 (AKA A#1 1/2)
Page 2. Dec 2, 1751 from Edward Maddox of CC, planter, to William Brawner and Anne, his wife, for the natural love that sd Maddox has for the abovesd Anne, his daughter, and also for 5 shillings sterling, and for divers* other good causes, he gives her all that parcel of land, being part of two tracts of land, the one called the Dam house Levell, the other called Blew plains, lying in CC, containing and laid out for 44 acres 28 perches. Signed-Edward (M his mark) Maddox. Wit-Thomas Stone, Willm Eilbeck. Recorded May 23, 1752.

[xx.f.] History of Charles County, Tencentenerary Year, 1958, pp. 54-55.

[xxi] Benjamin is proven to be the son of Cornelius by Benjamin’s half-sister’s will of 1745, in which he is listed as “of the half-blood”:

Anne Taylor [daughter of Mary Smallwood Maddox Taylor] 21.434 A CH £12.12.4 £6.10.2 Aug 10 1745
Sureties: Edward Maddox, Benjamin Maddox.
Received from: Thomas Carpenter, Aaron Nalley, David Davis, Edward Maddox, William Ward, William Brawner, John Newton, Mary Speake.
Payments to: Clement Kenneday, Mr. William Elbeck, Daniel Dulany, Esq., Walter Hanson.
Representatives: accountant (brother), Elisabeth Taylor (sister), of the half blood: John Maddox, Elisabeth Maddox, Benjamin Maddox, Phebe Clements wife of Joseph Clements.
Administrator: William Smallwood Taylor.

Mary Wheeler is shown to be Benjamin’s wife in Richard Wheeler’s Charles County, Maryland, will dated 1 April 1734 naming his daughter Mary Madox, as does his inventory of 1 May 1734. MCW 21.57

[xxii]Madox, Benjamin, willed 23 August 1770, probated 19 September 1770, Charles County, MD, Liber 38, folio 169-170, Hall of Records.

[xxiii] Frances is named Frances Maddox in her father’s will – John Posey, Sr., Charles County, 6 Jan 1759 – 17 Feb 1759.

[xxiv] His will dated Sept 1, 1767, Charles Co, Md.

[xxv] Anne Taylor payment on 10 August 1745 lists representatives: Phebe Clements wife of Joseph Clements.

[xxvi] Maryland Apprentice Book K:2

[xxvi.a.] Charles County MD Will Book 1777-1780, p. 301.  In Walter Maddox’s 1779 will, Elizabeth Maddox was listed as Walter Maddox’s widow with their 11 children – Eleanor, Anne, Mary, Phebe, Cornelious, George, Sarah More, Calista, Benjamin (19 y.o.), Elizabeth (13 y.o.), and Theophillus (11 y.o.).

[xxvi.b.] Erroneous: From Volume I Of The Roberts-Orme Ancestry: Family 92-93: WALTER, b. 1697; md. ELEANOR LUCKETT. Children (Maddox): Ann, Mary, Phebe, Cornelius, George, Sarah, Walter, Leonard, Lydia, Mary Ann, Richard, Thomas, and Walter.

[xxvii] Durham Parish is described in Charles County Maryland: A History, Bicentennial Edition, Heritage Books, 1976, pp. 91-94.

[xxviii] Edward Maddox is named as having owned a pew before 1792 in The History of Durham Parish, Charles County, Maryland, 1692-1892, Rev. William Pusey Painter, self-published, 1894, p. 9.  On page 15, Rhoda, Edward, Allison, Samuel, John, Jr., and Henry Maddox are listed as subscribers for the repair of the church in 1791.

[xxix] Personal visit in summer 2008.

[xxx] Maryland Colonial Court Proceedings, 30 July 1697.

[xxxi] Maryland Inv. & Act. Book 25:222.

[xxx.i.] The book Abstracts of the Testamentary Proceedings of the Prerogative Court of Maryland, Volume X: 1704-1707, Liber 19C:35 (page 75), lists a “bond of James Maddox administrator of Cornelius Maddox (pauper),” dated 7 March 1705/6, and explains that “Mary Maddox the widow renounced administration, in favor of the eldest son James Maddox,” dated 25 February 1705/6.  Benjamin Adams secured the bond.

[xxxii] Find A Grave researcher Blanche Keating Collie claims that Cornelius and his son Benjamin (I) were buried at Christ Church.  We are attempting to verify her claim as of June 2014.  See

42 thoughts on “Cornelius Maddox, 1651-1705”

  1. David Maddox said:

    I had not seen the patent for the transport of Cornelius into Maryland before. Is the word after John Reich “Merchant”? According to endnote 1, the name is John Riddick, which I have seen many places. Now seeing the doucment, his name is John Reich. The endnote should be corrected but, more importantly, this may let us find out more of the “transport” since a John and Tabitha Reich are on the patent.

  2. I updated endnote 1 with the correct spelling from the patent… it’s John Redich, Merchant. I’m not sure why we had Riddick as the spelling. Maybe we were repeating a spelling from a secondary source.

  3. David M. Maddox said:

    Based upon the drwilliams’s site, Cornelius’s son James, was married to Mary Hawkins (1686 – aft 1720). His listing indicates three children. Our listing only has his wife as Mary. It will be interesting if he can provide proof of Cornelius’s parents.

    • Unfortunately the source for the site is not an original source. Mr. Williams relied on Katheryn Haddad for his claim. On 26 January I contacted Katheryn, who told me that she has not made any conclusions about these links. I’m following up with her on some specifics.

  4. Linda Anderson said:

    IS there a Pheobe Maddox by marriage in this group/ My GrandFather was WILLIAM FRANKLIN MADDOX His Wife MABEL MADDOX???

    • Hi Linda. I believe there are two Phoebes in our line. They’re daughters of Cornelius and Benjamin I. It’s impossible for me to say if one of them may be your relation without more details. Thanks.

  5. Debra Davis said:

    Thank you for your good work and shareful posts. I am descendant of PHOEBE MADDOX, via her marriage to SAMUEL HUDSON, of Stafford Co., VA. Your work has helped very much, a weary lonely genealogist such as I have become. Kindest regards. Debra Davis

    • Thanks Debra! That means a lot!

      • Susan Balde Avery said:

        I did want to point out that you made a tiny transcription error (or the original document contained the misspelling) the Posey’s Chance land deed that Benjamin deeded over to his daughter Phoebe and her husband Samuel Hudson you had written his name as Hanson – it is definitely Hudson and I found that same record with his name listed correctly as Hudson. This is also, for those of us who are descendants- like Debra Davis and I, the long sought for proof that this is our connection to both Phoebe Maddox, her father Benjamin and to the Posey family as well – Benjamin’s wife Frances Posey!!!! I don’t know if you can fix (edit) your website but it would be very important to have this correction of his name on the website for people to find in the future. Thank you again – I can’t thank you enough for sharing this family history!!! Susan Avery

      • Thanks for the correction, Susan. I’ll make a note on the page!

    • Susan Balde Avery said:

      Debra & Prof. Maddox – I ALSO am a descendant of Phoebe Maddox and Samuel Hudson!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! After 25 years of research I finally discovered Samuel Hudson and have since confirmed via DNA that Samuel is my ancestor and thus discovered my Maddox ancestry as well, which I never knew about – I also have confirmed DNA matches to the Maddox line now so Debra I am very very excited to hear about you and would love to be in contact with you somehow. My email address is – I don’t know if you will see this since you wrote this in 2015 but I hope somehow you will. Prof. Maddox your website and research on the Maddox family is so wonderful – extremely well researched and full of the history behind the names and dates that we all ultmately hope for!!! Thank you so very much for sharing this – I can’t tell you how very exciting this is to me – I am amazed and thankful! Susan Balde Avery

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  7. Sally Schmitt said:

    Hello we have been researching the Maddox families of Charles County, MD for awhile believing that George Washington Maddocks (born 1777 Charles County, MD died c. 1851 Hickman County, TN), is a descendant of Cornelius Maddox. George Washington Maddocks‘s daughter Margaret married William Cox Luckett, grandson of Ignatious Luckett and I believe Jannett Luckett who married Henley Maddox was his aunt. George Washington Maddocks also enlisted in the Maryland militia in 1807 recruited by a Luckett. Does anyone have any ideas who his father could be? Or any clues? Thank you.

    • Hi there. I had never encountered George Washington Maddox’s name before your note. Everyone on seems to think that he was the son of David Benjamin Maddox (1737-1795), but none of them has provided documentation. The Luckett connection you’ve described is really provocative, since a few descendants of Cornelius Maddox intermarried with them in Maryland. Based on this Luckett connection and 1850 census documentation of GW Maddox’s birth in Maryland, I think you have a high likelihood of connecting into the Cornelius Maddox line. But I’m sorry I can’t say which Maddox was GW’s father.

  8. Sally Schmitt said:

    Hi, thanks for your reply…. The main reason I do not think he is David Maddox’s son is because he is not mentioned in his will. I understand this happens sometimes, but all his other children are mentioned, unless he was just disowned. Also the fact George W. Maddocks was born in Maryland, and no evidence that David Maddox ever resided in Maryland nor GWM being in Virginia or North Carolina where David Maddox died. Great site regarding this Maddox line.

  9. Pam Mattox Parker said:

    I am a descendent of Samuel Madddox, his son Edward Maddox, born 1691, his son John Mattox (name spelling changed) born 1729, and his Patriot son John Mckenzie Mattox, born 1763. I am very proud to be of the Maddox-Mattox family and enjoy your emails. Member of the Daughter’s of the American Revolution. Thank you for all you do.

  10. Ellison Maddox said:

    Ellison Maddox here descendent from Cornelius’s son John Maddox who had a son named James who had a son named Samuel who had a son also named Samuel Larson who had a son named Nathaniel Tipton Maddox and he had a son Corbin Dicator who had son Richard who had two sons Richard “Dick” and son Donald, Dick died in a car accident at a young age never married or had children Donald who had only 2 sons Dale and James Dale has no children and James only had one child a girl who is me! Im the last Descendent of John Maddox until i have a son of my own! Who’s last name will be Maddox!

    • Jane Thomas said:

      Do you have evidence of this lineage? Nathaniel Tipton Maddox’s parents were: Samuel Lawson Maddox & Eliz. Comer, grandparents Samuel Webster Maddox & Milly Robinson, then James Maddox & Nancy Ann Webster, then John Maddox and Elizabeth Sherwood of 1688 Virginia. I cannot connect them to Cornelius or anyone in the Maryland group. The 1688 John Maddox was of New Kent, VA.

      • Hi Jane. I don’t think we’ve tracked that particular line, but if you’re asking about Cornelius’ known descendants their documentation is included in Cornelius’ profile page. He died without a will, so most evidence of descendants is derived from estate inventories and land records.

      • Jane Thomas said:

        In reply to the post of Ellison Maddox, I agree with the first few of her ancestors she lists but cannot trace that lineage back to Cornelius Maddox. Here’s what I have with documentation. National Tipton Maddox goes as far back as John Maddox b. 1687 in New Kent County, VA. I’ve found no connection from this John Maddox to Cornelius

        Nathaniel Tipton Maddox b 1844 was indeed the son of Samuel Lawson Maddox and Elizabeth Comer, all of Campbell County, VA (1850,1860 census and death record of Nathaniel Tipton Maddox in 1915 in Campbell County VA).

        Samuel Lawson Maddox b. 1797 in Cumberland County VA was the son of Samuel Webster Maddox and Mildred ‘Milly’ Ann Comer, married in 1793 in Cumberland County, VA (VA Marriage Records 1750-1850, He died in Campbell County VA in 1864.

        Samuel Webster Maddox b 1774 in Cumberland County VA was the son of James Maddox and Nancy Ann Webster. He was married to Mildred ‘Millie’ Ann Robinson in 1793 (VA Marriage Records 1660-1800.)

        James Maddox b 1737 in Goochland County VA was the son of John Maddox b 1688 in New Kent, VA. James married Nancy ‘Nanny’ Ann Webster in 1761 in St. James Northam Parish, Goochland County VA (The Douglas Register, Being a detailed Record of Births, Marriage, and Deaths together with other interesting notes as kept by the Rev. William Douglas, from 1750-1797; U.S. and International Marriage Records 1560-1900). He was born in Virginia (American Genealogical/Biographical Index, Godfrey Memorial Library, comp., through Note his son was named Samuel WEBSTER Maddox – his wife’s maiden name.

        John Maddox b 1687 in New Kent VA. His marriage in 1718 to Elebeth is recorded in The Douglas Register (above paragraph) and in U.S. and International Marriage Records. Dates of his and his wife’s births are recorded there as 1687 and 1702. His will was recorded in 1748 in Goochland County, VA, St. James Northam Parish, and names his 11 children: William, John, Benjamin, Sara, Elebeth, Jacob, Suanna, James, Elizabeth, Ann, and David, and his wife Elebeth. His marriage to Elebeth in International Marriage Records but does not give Elebeth’s last name. A Family Data Collection document names his wife as Elizebeth Woodson Sherwood.

        The Cornelius Maddox, the subject of this blog, sailed from England to Maryland in 1683 and married Ms. Smallwood in 1685. Though he did have a son named John born around the same year as the John of New Kent VA, John son of Cornelius was of Charles City, MD and was an innkeeper. There is no evidence that they were the same person. What documentation is there that proves John was the son of Cornelius and the dates of his birth and death? My documents prove my John to have been born in New Kent VA, to have married Elebeth Sherwood, and to have died in April 1748.

  11. Great site, thanks for sharing it with us! My Maddox line is Edward, Cornelius, Edward, Phoebe aka Mary, Ezekiel Skinner, Asa William Gray Skinner, James Allen Skinner, Martha Jane Skinner, Nellie Joyce Morton (my grandmother). The recent discovery of Ezekiel’s will led me to my Maddox ancestors. Before that, my line ended with Asa Skinner. I’ve very much enjoyed getting to know my Maddox ancestors, thanks in part to your site and your research.

    I have a correction to suggest. Edward and Jane Speake Maddox had a son named Rhoda (also seen as Rhody). The Find A Grave source incorrectly listed this child as a daughter married to a Williams. Proof can be found in Edward’s will, “I give and bequeath to my well beloved son Rhoda…” Source: Maryland Register of Wills Records, 1629-1999, Vol 6, page 58 (found at FamilySearch).

    Phoebe has been suggested an alternate first name for their daughter who married James Skinner (you listed her as Mary, per Edward’s Find A Grave memorial). I haven’t been able to find her listed by her first name, however, a Skinner cousin of mine has seen her listed as Phoebe in a land record. He’s trying to find that record again to share with me. Until then, her first name is unverified as far as I can determine. I have contacted the Find A Grave memorial manager, who listed her as Mary, for assistance as well. I’ll contact you again if I have new information.

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