The possible parents of Dr. Edward Maddox (d. 1694)

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We’ve already linked Dr. Edward Maddox (d. 1694) to his son Cornelius Maddox (d. 1705) and his other children Edward, Elinor, John and Alice by the children’s baptismal records in the Munslow Parish record book.  This paternity is confirmed by Edward’s later interaction with Cornelius, Edward and Alice in Colonial Maryland and Virginia records.

Two more records in the Munslow Parish book show an Edward Maddox buried on 10 October 1658, and an Alice Maddox, widow, buried on 16 February 1662/3.  Edward and Alice could be the parents of our Dr. Edward Maddox.  While their paternity and maternity to our Dr. Edward Maddox remain uncorroborated, these records are so far the closest we’ve gotten to another link in our chain.

Edward Maddox’s (d. 1658) and Alice Maddox’s (d. 1662/3) earlier residence at Munslow Parish also hints at a temporary geographic location for our Maddox line in Shropshire, England, during the 17th century.  One genealogist recently listed the handful of Maddoxes who took up residence in Munslow Parish shortly after 1600, all of whom were fathered by a John Maddockes.  However, Edward Maddox (d. 1658) is not listed as one of John’s children.

Munslow Parish Church of St Michael

A research trip to Munslow Parish’s Church of St. Michael is in order.

 

Did Edward have a brother in Virginia?

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Some genealogists claim that Edward Maddox (d. 1694) had a brother named Rice Maddox (d. 1664) in Colonial Maryland and Virginia (Rice, pronounced “reese” is probably short for Richard).  So far there’s zero documentation of a link, but here are some places to start…

  • Rice Maddocke was called a “chirurgion” (surgeon) and Edward also was a surgeon. (Westmoreland County deed, 6 Dec 1653, in “Virginia Colonial Abstracts Vol. 23,” p. 15)
  • Rice received 200 acres in 1650 by transporting four people, including himself, Thomas Cockrill, Susan Hale, and Thomas Tillitt, into the Virginia Colony. (Northumberland County Deeds & ORDERS 1650-1652, p. 47)
  • Rice lived 36 miles down the Potomac River from Edward’s land, on a 300-acre tract at the mouth of the Nomini River in Westmoreland County. (Westmoreland County Deeds and Wills No. 1, p. 182, 29 October 1662, in “Westmoreland County, Virginia, Records 1661-1664,” abstracted and compiled by John Frederick Dorman)
  • Rice Maddox and Samuel Maddox  witnessed a 200-acre land purchase by Robert Coleman from Francis Carpenter, 22 Aug. 1659, recorded in Westmoreland County, Virginia.  Rice and Samuel could have been brothers or otherwise related.  It’s tempting to identify this Samuel with the Samuel Maddox (1638-1684) who lived in St. Mary’s, Maryland, around the same time; however, Samuel Maddox (1638-1684) reportedly immigrated to Maryland in approximately 1665.

Beyond that, Rice seems to have lived a complicated life, based on a few records:

  • Rice married Anne Dandy in 1657 or 1658.  She was the widow of John Dandy – a notoriously violent man who served as a hangman in Maryland, and who was himself hung in 1657 for murder.  Rice, along with Emperor Smith, both surgeons, examined the body of Dandy’s victim – and cut off his head to present it to the court.  Anne was tried by the Maryland Provincial Court for embezzlement because she did not properly administer John Dandy’s estate after his death, but Anne successfully argued that harsh punishment would affect her two (unnamed) children. (AOMOL, 10:546; 2:326; 10:559; 10:443; 10:432.)
  • Rice Maddox was arrested for failure to pay a debt in 1663. (Westmoreland County Deeds and Wills No. 1, p. 15, 24 June 1663, in “Westmoreland County, Virginia, Records 1661-1664,” abstracted and compiled by John Frederick Dorman)
  • Rice was murdered in January or February 1664 under unknown circumstances.  Edmund Goddard, John Fryer and William Webb were jailed for his “untimely death.”  Rice’s body was dissected by the surgeon Robert Noble. (Westmoreland County Deeds and Wills No. 1, p. 24, 24 February 1663/1664, in “Westmoreland County, Virginia, Records 1661-1664,” abstracted and compiled by John Frederick Dorman)

Rice’s wife Anne was left to work through the wreckage of Rice’s estate and relied on the court’s attorneys.  Rice’s wife was clearly the widow Anne Dandy in Maryland as of 1658.  In Westmoreland, County, Virginia, Rice’s wife is listed as Alice on 8 October 1662, but just 21 days later she is named Anne in the same record book, and she is named Anne consistently in all other known records. (Westmoreland County Deeds and Wills No. 1, p. 181-182, 8 October and 29 October 1662, in “Westmoreland County, Virginia, Records 1661-1664,” abstracted and compiled by John Frederick Dorman)

Pesky parson

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Parson John Waugh was a notorious Protestant Whig in Stafford County, Virginia, in the late 1600s.  He incited Catholic-Protestant violence, officiated men’s marriages to preteen girls, and connived his way into free acreage from at least one rich woman.

Edward Maddox willed about 500 acres in King George County, Virginia, to the parson and we’ve always wondered at the circumstances.  Edward, as a Stafford justice of the peace, personally ruled against the parson for one of his preteen marriages and must have understood his character.  So why would he give land to Waugh?  We know that Edward was politically aligned with the Waughs and their Mason allies, but the 500 acre conveyance seems unusual.

Today we discovered that John Waugh not only received 500 acres from Edward’s estate, but also was appointed to directly administer Edward’s estate (Westmoreland County Order Book 1690-1698, Part Three (1694-1698), p. 178-179).  No conflict of interests there, right?  Something stinks.

 

Alice

We’re perplexed by Alice, the wife of Charles Cale in King George County in the early 1700s.  We believe she’s the daughter of our Edward Maddox because we know Edward had a daughter named Alice of the same approximate age and he gave 200 acres in King George County, Virginia, to Alice Cale in his 1694 will.

Today we discovered that Alice Cale was married to at least three men: (FNU) Watts, William Strothers, and Charles Cale, based on Westmoreland County deed 1:635, dated 5 December 1729.  Of course records don’t provide her maiden name, so we have no way of corroborating her Maddox origins from that particular document.  But her inheritance of 200 acres from Edward would otherwise lock it in.  Sigh.

Locating Edward Maddox’s early Maryland properties

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Dr. Edward Maddox owned numerous tracts in the Maryland Colony in the mid-1600s, mostly along tributaries of the Potomac River in Charles County and modern Prince George County.  A recent survey conducted by the Broad Creek Historic District provides estimates of the locations of Edward’s Stone Hill, Lyon’s Hole and possible Athey’s Hopewell tracts.  See the map below.  The Vainall tract, which is used as a reference in some of Edward’s deeds, was centered on 38.756851, -76.985385.

Edward Maddox land locations 1696

Deeds/sources of Edward’s tracts:

Lyons Hole: Charles County Circuit Court Liber R, Page 144: 31 Dec 1690; Indenture from Daniell Smith of St. Mary’s County, carpenter, to Henry Goodridge; for 6,000# tobacco; a tract called Lyons Hole; bounded by Richard Fowkes’ Vaineall; containing 100 acres; formerly granted to Edward Maddocks by patent; /s/ Daniell Smith (mark); wit. John Wilder, Cleborne Lomax; ack. by Elizabeth Smith, wife of Daniel. [Note: Edward is untitled in this transaction (normally he’s called “apothecary”), and it’s possible that this Edward Maddocks is the younger Edward.]

Doges Neck: Charles County Circuit Court Liber H, Page 132: 5 Sep 1678; Indenture from Edward Maddock, apothecary, to John Reddick; for 30,000# tobacco; a parcel of land called Doges Neck; on the south side of the Piscataway River to the mouth of Chingamuxon Creek; laid out for 200 acres; /s/ Edward Maddock; wit. Rando. Brandt, Geo. Godfrey; acknowledged by Margery wife of Edward Maddock.

Cheshire: Charles County Circuit Court Liber I, Page 125: 5 Jun 1681; Indenture from Edward Maddock, apothecary, and Margery his wife, relict of Matthew Stone, to William Chandler, Gent.; a tract called Cheshires being part of Poynton Manor; inherited by Margery from the will of William Stone; containing 500 acres; for 40,000# of tobacco; /s/ Edward Maddock, Margery Maddock; wit. Tho. Hussy, John Richards.

Greene’s Purchase: Charles County 1671-1674, Vol. 60, Pg. 532-534: “Luke Greene acknowledged the ensueinge Conveyance unto Edward Maddock for two hundred acres of Land called Greenes Purchase in open Court Vizt…”

Stone Hill: Charles County Circuit Court Liber F, Page 22: 29 Oct 1674; Indenture from Henry Aspenall, planter, to Edward Maddocke, apothecary; for 20,000# of tobacco and 300 acres of Stone Hill; a tract called Doegs Neck on the south side of Piscataway River, bound by Chingamuxon Creek; laid out for 450 acres; also a parcel on the east side of the said neck by the sd creek containing 200 acres by patent granted Walter Hall 26 Apr 1658; Isl Henry Aspenall; wit. Richard Edelen, Stephen Murry

Athey’s Hopewell: Charles County Circuit Court Liber F, Page 180: 12 Apr 1676; Indenture from Edward Maddock, apothecary, to Philip Carey; for 3,000# tobacco; a parcel called Athey’s Hopewell; containing 100 acres; /s/ Ed. Maddock; wit. Philip Lines, Luke Greene

Maddock’s Folly: Charles County Circuit Court Liber F, Page 200: 8 Aug 1676; Indenture from Edward Maddock, apothecary, to Philip Lines; for 8,000# tobacco; a parcel called Maddock’s Folly; on the east side of Piscataway River; containing 350 acres; /s/ Edward Maddock; wit. Henry Bonner, Joshua Guibert, John Hamilton

Nanjemoy: Charles Co., MD, Land Record L #1, folio 142: 17 February 1684, Edward Maddock and wife Margery of Stafford Co., VA, conveyed 500 acres called “Nanjemoy” in Charles co. to Gerard Fowke.

 

Locating Cornelius Maddox’s Tatshall tract

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In Charles County, Maryland, Cornelius Maddox owned a 60-acre tract called Tatshall in 1684-1688 (Charles County Circuit Court Liber L, Page 51, 26 Dec 1684).  His presence there would have put him in frequent contact with Piscataway and Susquehannock Indians.

Early descriptions place Tatshall east of Portobacco Fresh (now called Port Tobacco Creek) and west of Zekiah Swamp (sometimes called Allens Fresh), “adjoining to the land called Moores Ditch [aka Moore’s Lodge] at the exterior bound thereof,” and abutting land owned by Hussey, Shaw, Lindsey and Smallwood.  This locates the tract just south of modern La Plata, Maryland, and just north of the Potomac River.  On modern maps of the small  area, a stream called Maddox Branch flows from 38.46744, -76.981926 to 38.475227, -76.957444, into Zekiah Swamp Run – and Tatshall probably lay along Maddox Branch.  The tract was also called Tatall, Totsall, Tattsall, Tasch Hall and Nuthall in various records.

Zekiah Swamp was the location of a Piscataway Indian fort during Cornelius’ land ownership and until the Piscataways’ departure in 1692.  The Indian fort, now called Zekiah Fort, was recently excavated by archeologists at approximately 38.569746, -76.872085 – about 8 miles northeast of Maddox Branch.  Zekiah Fort was a last defense for the Piscataway, whose enemies the Susquahannock were seeking revenge for the Piscataway alliance with the British.  The fort attracted frequent Indian skirmishes in the 1680s and 1690s.

Cornelius’ father-in-law James Smallwood served as an Indian agent, and had frequent contact with the Piscataway at Zekiah Fort.  Cornelius’ neighbor and family business partner Thomas Hussey, who owned Moore’s Lodge, also had contact with the Piscataway, as evidenced by his September 1681 “statement that the raiding Indians had carried away eleven Piscataway (one man and ten women) from his plantation,” and that “Hussey had all of his linen, blankets, clothing, and rings stolen by a band of Indians.” (Md. Archives 17:20, cited in “A Place Now Known Unto Them:” The Search for Zekiah Fort)

Maddox land patents in Colonial-era Charles County, Maryland

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Numerous Maddox and Maddox-associated tracts are described in the Charles County Circuit Court Land Survey, Subdivision, and Condominium Plats, including a few we haven’t seen before.

The following tract was owned by Cornelius Maddox and we’ve never seen the original description:

Totsall, 60 Acres; Patent Record CB 3, p. 163; Date: 1682; Developer/Owner: Ashford, Michael. http://plato.mdarchives.state.md.us/msa/stagser/s1500/s1529/cfm/dsp_unit.cfm?county=ch&qualifier=S&series=1587&unit=4123

The first three of the following tracts were owned by Benjamin Maddox (I) and Benjamin Maddox (II), and the rest are associated with their sons:

Horne Faire, 150 Acres; Patent Record 17, p. 522; Date: 1674; Developer/Owner: Nevill, William.  http://plato.mdarchives.state.md.us/msa/stagser/s1500/s1529/cfm/dsp_unit.cfm?county=ch&qualifier=S&series=1587&unit=2055

Horn Fair Addition, 30 Acres; Patent Record BC and GS 2, p. 182; Date: 1755; Developer/Owner: Maddox, Benjamin. http://plato.mdarchives.state.md.us/msa/stagser/s1500/s1529/cfm/dsp_unit.cfm?county=ch&qualifier=S&series=1587&unit=2058

Poseys Chance, 100 Acres; Patent Record LG B, p. 73; Date: 1739; Developer/Owner: Posey, John. http://plato.mdarchives.state.md.us/msa/stagser/s1500/s1529/cfm/dsp_unit.cfm?county=ch&qualifier=S&series=1587&unit=3260

Posey, 450 Acres; Patent Record AB and H, p. 170; Date: 1651; Developer/Owner: Posey, Francis Burlane, John. http://plato.mdarchives.state.md.us/msa/stagser/s1500/s1529/cfm/dsp_unit.cfm?county=ch&qualifier=S&series=1587&unit=3258

Batchelors Hope, 184 Acres; Patent Record C 3, p. 166; Date: 1695; Developer/Owner: Smallwood, James. http://plato.mdarchives.state.md.us/msa/stagser/s1500/s1529/cfm/dsp_unit.cfm?county=ch&qualifier=S&series=1587&unit=372

Blue Plains, 680 Acres; Patent Record BT and BY 3, p. 565; Date: 1747; Developer/Owner: Maddox, Edward. http://plato.mdarchives.state.md.us/msa/stagser/s1500/s1529/cfm/dsp_unit.cfm?county=ch&qualifier=S&series=1587&unit=497

Maddoxs Trouble, 236 Acres; Patent Record EI 2, p. 666; Date: 1738; Developer/Owner: Maddox or Maddux, John. http://plato.mdarchives.state.md.us/msa/stagser/s1500/s1529/cfm/dsp_unit.cfm?county=ch&qualifier=S&series=1587&unit=2540

The following tracts were wholly or partially owned by Edward Maddox:

Mannor of Poynton, 5000 Acres; Patent Record AB and H, p. 425; Date:  1658; Developer/Owner: Stone, William. http://plato.mdarchives.state.md.us/msa/stagser/s1500/s1529/cfm/dsp_unit.cfm?county=ch&qualifier=S&series=1587&unit=2582

Doags Neck, The, 450 Acres; Patent Record AB and H, p. 437; Date: 1658; Developer/Owner: Hall, Walter. http://plato.mdarchives.state.md.us/msa/stagser/s1500/s1529/cfm/dsp_unit.cfm?county=ch&qualifier=S&series=1587&unit=1170

Hopewell, 80 Acres; Patent; Patent Record CB 2, p. 44; Date: 1680; Developer/Owner: Athea, George. http://plato.mdarchives.state.md.us/msa/stagser/s1500/s1529/cfm/dsp_unit.cfm?county=ch&qualifier=S&series=1587&unit=2043

Why would you ever name a kid Napoleon?

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Thanks to research by Joe Holland, we now know that Joseph Maddox‘s second wife was Susan M. (Hargraves) (Jones) Maddox, whom he married on 7 March 1871 in Christian County, Kentucky.  Susan was born in Tennessee to Young and Charlotte Hargraves, according to the 1850 census.  She was married to James Jones from 4 October 1856 until James’ death in 1869.  Susan gave birth to John Napoleon “Napy” Maddox on 21 May 1872.

We’ve always wondered why Joseph and Susan would give John the unusual middle name of Napoleon.  Thanks to Joe, we know…

“From my preliminary research, John Napoleon Maddox got his middle name courtesy of his mother. Susan Hargrave(s) Jones Maddox had a brother, Napoleon B Hargraves. He is buried in Cave Hill National Cemetery, ‘Napoleon B Hargraves, Co H 48th Kentucky Infantry. Died June 17, 1864, Munfordville, Ky.'”  The 48th Kentucky Infantry Regiment was a Union unit and Napoleon Hargraves’ service record is available on the NPS site.

Early parishes of Stafford County, Virginia

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When trying to understand early Stafford County, Virginia, land and parish records, it’s helpful to understand local parish name changes over time. Here’s a chronology:

Circa 1653-1680: Potomac Parish

Circa 1664-1680: Upper Parish (north) and Lower Parish (south)

Circa 1680-1702: Stafford Parish

1702-1776: St. Paul’s Parish (north)

1702-1785: Overwharton Parish (south)

1731: Hamilton Parish formed from land that transferred from Stafford Co to Prince William Co when Prince William Co formed

1776: Brunswick Parish formed in King George Co from Hanover Parish in 1732. A part was added to Stafford Co, when its boundary with King George was altered in 1776.

Dr. Edward Maddox bequeathed about 500 acres to his local Stafford Parish minister (Rev. Waugh) in 1694. This land was along the Passapatanzy Creek, just south of Marlborough Town.  The acreage would form the Overwharton Parish glebe.

Source: http://vagenweb.org/parishes.htm

Cornelius Maddox likely arrived in Maryland before 1680

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Cornelius Maddox is regularly described by genealogists as having arrived in Maryland in 1680, based on a 9 July 1680 claim made by the merchant John Reddich/Redich/Reddick for transporting Cornelius and 19 other “transportees” (Maryland Patents Liber WC2, Folio 199, 9 July 1680).  However, John Reddich’s claim is likely an aggregation of these 20 transportees’ obligations.  These 20 transportees almost certainly did not arrive together on 9 July 1680.  Instead, the transportees probably arrived in the years before 1680, based on typical claim patterns at the time (“The Five George Masons: Patriots and Planters of Virginia and Maryland.”  Copeland, Pamela and MacMaster, Richard.  University Press of Virginia: Charlottesville, 1975. pp. 10&23.).

John Reddich was exercising the Colonial headright system, which rewarded sponsors of immigrants’ travel into the Colonies by providing 50 acres for each transportee’s arrival.  By claiming 20 headrights, including his own name, Reddich would have earned a 1,000 acre land grant from the Maryland Calverts.

The year 1680 would have been one of the worst times to arrive in the Maryland Colony.  The Colony was dealing with Catholic-Protestant upheaval, Indian territorial fights, and – most important for a merchant like Cornelius – a tobacco market recession.

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