Pesky parson


Parson John Waugh was a notorious Protestant Whig in Stafford County, Virginia, in the late 1600s.  He incited Catholic-Protestant violence, officiated men’s marriages to preteen girls, and connived his way into free acreage from at least one rich woman.

Edward Maddox willed about 500 acres in King George County, Virginia, to the parson and we’ve always wondered at the circumstances.  Edward, as a Stafford justice of the peace, personally ruled against the parson for one of his preteen marriages and must have understood his character.  So why would he give land to Waugh?  We know that Edward was politically aligned with the Waughs and their Mason allies, but the 500 acre conveyance seems unusual.

Today we discovered that John Waugh not only received 500 acres from Edward’s estate, but also was appointed to directly administer Edward’s estate (Westmoreland County Order Book 1690-1698, Part Three (1694-1698), p. 178-179).  No conflict of interests there, right?  Something stinks.



We’re perplexed by Alice, the wife of Charles Cale in King George County in the early 1700s.  We believe she’s the daughter of our Edward Maddox because we know Edward had a daughter named Alice of the same approximate age and he gave 200 acres in King George County, Virginia, to Alice Cale in his 1694 will.

Today we discovered that Alice Cale was married to at least three men: (FNU) Watts, William Strothers, and Charles Cale, based on Westmoreland County deed 1:635, dated 5 December 1729.  Of course records don’t provide her maiden name, so we have no way of corroborating her Maddox origins from that particular document.  But her inheritance of 200 acres from Edward would otherwise lock it in.  Sigh.

Locating Edward Maddox’s early Maryland properties



Dr. Edward Maddox owned numerous tracts in the Maryland Colony in the mid-1600s, mostly along tributaries of the Potomac River in Charles County and modern Prince George County.  A recent survey conducted by the Broad Creek Historic District provides estimates of the locations of Edward’s Stone Hill, Lyon’s Hole and possible Athey’s Hopewell tracts.  See the map below.  The Vainall tract, which is used as a reference in some of Edward’s deeds, was centered on 38.756851, -76.985385.

Edward Maddox land locations 1696

Deeds/sources of Edward’s tracts:

Lyons Hole: Charles County Circuit Court Liber R, Page 144: 31 Dec 1690; Indenture from Daniell Smith of St. Mary’s County, carpenter, to Henry Goodridge; for 6,000# tobacco; a tract called Lyons Hole; bounded by Richard Fowkes’ Vaineall; containing 100 acres; formerly granted to Edward Maddocks by patent; /s/ Daniell Smith (mark); wit. John Wilder, Cleborne Lomax; ack. by Elizabeth Smith, wife of Daniel. [Note: Edward is untitled in this transaction (normally he’s called “apothecary”), and it’s possible that this Edward Maddocks is the younger Edward.]

Doges Neck: Charles County Circuit Court Liber H, Page 132: 5 Sep 1678; Indenture from Edward Maddock, apothecary, to John Reddick; for 30,000# tobacco; a parcel of land called Doges Neck; on the south side of the Piscataway River to the mouth of Chingamuxon Creek; laid out for 200 acres; /s/ Edward Maddock; wit. Rando. Brandt, Geo. Godfrey; acknowledged by Margery wife of Edward Maddock.

Cheshire: Charles County Circuit Court Liber I, Page 125: 5 Jun 1681; Indenture from Edward Maddock, apothecary, and Margery his wife, relict of Matthew Stone, to William Chandler, Gent.; a tract called Cheshires being part of Poynton Manor; inherited by Margery from the will of William Stone; containing 500 acres; for 40,000# of tobacco; /s/ Edward Maddock, Margery Maddock; wit. Tho. Hussy, John Richards.

Greene’s Purchase: Charles County 1671-1674, Vol. 60, Pg. 532-534: “Luke Greene acknowledged the ensueinge Conveyance unto Edward Maddock for two hundred acres of Land called Greenes Purchase in open Court Vizt…”

Stone Hill: Charles County Circuit Court Liber F, Page 22: 29 Oct 1674; Indenture from Henry Aspenall, planter, to Edward Maddocke, apothecary; for 20,000# of tobacco and 300 acres of Stone Hill; a tract called Doegs Neck on the south side of Piscataway River, bound by Chingamuxon Creek; laid out for 450 acres; also a parcel on the east side of the said neck by the sd creek containing 200 acres by patent granted Walter Hall 26 Apr 1658; Isl Henry Aspenall; wit. Richard Edelen, Stephen Murry

Athey’s Hopewell: Charles County Circuit Court Liber F, Page 180: 12 Apr 1676; Indenture from Edward Maddock, apothecary, to Philip Carey; for 3,000# tobacco; a parcel called Athey’s Hopewell; containing 100 acres; /s/ Ed. Maddock; wit. Philip Lines, Luke Greene

Maddock’s Folly: Charles County Circuit Court Liber F, Page 200: 8 Aug 1676; Indenture from Edward Maddock, apothecary, to Philip Lines; for 8,000# tobacco; a parcel called Maddock’s Folly; on the east side of Piscataway River; containing 350 acres; /s/ Edward Maddock; wit. Henry Bonner, Joshua Guibert, John Hamilton

Nanjemoy: Charles Co., MD, Land Record L #1, folio 142: 17 February 1684, Edward Maddock and wife Margery of Stafford Co., VA, conveyed 500 acres called “Nanjemoy” in Charles co. to Gerard Fowke.


Locating Cornelius Maddox’s Tatshall tract


In Charles County, Maryland, Cornelius Maddox owned a 60-acre tract called Tatshall in 1684-1688 (Charles County Circuit Court Liber L, Page 51, 26 Dec 1684).  His presence there would have put him in frequent contact with Piscataway and Susquehannock Indians.

Early descriptions place Tatshall east of Portobacco Fresh (now called Port Tobacco Creek) and west of Zekiah Swamp (sometimes called Allens Fresh), “adjoining to the land called Moores Ditch [aka Moore’s Lodge] at the exterior bound thereof,” and abutting land owned by Hussey, Shaw, Lindsey and Smallwood.  After a century of searches, the Moore’s Lodge site was found and excavated in 2008, revealing the locations of buildings owned by Maddox relatives Thomas Hussey and Samuel Luckett.  On modern maps of the surrounding area, a stream called Maddox Branch, just south of the Moore’s Lodge site, flows west-east from 38.46744, -76.981926 to 38.475227, -76.957444, into Zekiah Swamp Run – and Tatshall probably lay along Maddox Branch.  This means that Tatshall was almost certainly centered at about 38.481510, -76.968192.  The tract was also called Tatall, Totsall, Tattsall, Tasch Hall and Nuthall in various records.

Zekiah Swamp was the location of a Piscataway Indian fort during Cornelius’ land ownership and until the Piscataways’ departure in 1692.  The Indian fort, now called Zekiah Fort, was recently excavated by archeologists at approximately 38.569746, -76.872085 – about 8 miles northeast of Maddox Branch.  Zekiah Fort was a last defense for the Piscataway, whose enemies the Susquahannock were seeking revenge for the Piscataway alliance with the British.  The fort attracted frequent Indian skirmishes in the 1680s and 1690s.

Cornelius’ father-in-law James Smallwood served as an Indian agent, and had frequent contact with the Piscataway at Zekiah Fort.  Cornelius’ neighbor and family business partner Thomas Hussey, who owned Moore’s Lodge, also had contact with the Piscataway, as evidenced by his September 1681 “statement that the raiding Indians had carried away eleven Piscataway (one man and ten women) from his plantation,” and that “Hussey had all of his linen, blankets, clothing, and rings stolen by a band of Indians.” (Md. Archives 17:20, cited in “A Place Now Known Unto Them:” The Search for Zekiah Fort)

Maddox land patents in Colonial-era Charles County, Maryland


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Numerous Maddox and Maddox-associated tracts are described in the Charles County Circuit Court Land Survey, Subdivision, and Condominium Plats, including a few we haven’t seen before.

The following tract was owned by Cornelius Maddox and we’ve never seen the original description:

Totsall, 60 Acres; Patent Record CB 3, p. 163; Date: 1682; Developer/Owner: Ashford, Michael.

The first three of the following tracts were owned by Benjamin Maddox (I) and Benjamin Maddox (II), and the rest are associated with their sons:

Horne Faire, 150 Acres; Patent Record 17, p. 522; Date: 1674; Developer/Owner: Nevill, William.

Horn Fair Addition, 30 Acres; Patent Record BC and GS 2, p. 182; Date: 1755; Developer/Owner: Maddox, Benjamin.

Poseys Chance, 100 Acres; Patent Record LG B, p. 73; Date: 1739; Developer/Owner: Posey, John.

Posey, 450 Acres; Patent Record AB and H, p. 170; Date: 1651; Developer/Owner: Posey, Francis Burlane, John.

Batchelors Hope, 184 Acres; Patent Record C 3, p. 166; Date: 1695; Developer/Owner: Smallwood, James.

Blue Plains, 680 Acres; Patent Record BT and BY 3, p. 565; Date: 1747; Developer/Owner: Maddox, Edward.

Maddoxs Trouble, 236 Acres; Patent Record EI 2, p. 666; Date: 1738; Developer/Owner: Maddox or Maddux, John.

The following tracts were wholly or partially owned by Edward Maddox:

Mannor of Poynton, 5000 Acres; Patent Record AB and H, p. 425; Date:  1658; Developer/Owner: Stone, William.

Doags Neck, The, 450 Acres; Patent Record AB and H, p. 437; Date: 1658; Developer/Owner: Hall, Walter.

Hopewell, 80 Acres; Patent; Patent Record CB 2, p. 44; Date: 1680; Developer/Owner: Athea, George.

Why would you ever name a kid Napoleon?


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Thanks to research by Joe Holland, we now know that Joseph Maddox‘s second wife was Susan M. (Hargraves) (Jones) Maddox, whom he married on 7 March 1871 in Christian County, Kentucky.  Susan was born in Tennessee to Young and Charlotte Hargraves, according to the 1850 census.  She was married to James Jones from 4 October 1856 until James’ death in 1869.  Susan gave birth to John Napoleon “Napy” Maddox on 21 May 1872.

We’ve always wondered why Joseph and Susan would give John the unusual middle name of Napoleon.  Thanks to Joe, we know…

“From my preliminary research, John Napoleon Maddox got his middle name courtesy of his mother. Susan Hargrave(s) Jones Maddox had a brother, Napoleon B Hargraves. He is buried in Cave Hill National Cemetery, ‘Napoleon B Hargraves, Co H 48th Kentucky Infantry. Died June 17, 1864, Munfordville, Ky.'”  The 48th Kentucky Infantry Regiment was a Union unit and Napoleon Hargraves’ service record is available on the NPS site.

Early parishes of Stafford County, Virginia


When trying to understand early Stafford County, Virginia, land and parish records, it’s helpful to understand local parish name changes over time. Here’s a chronology:

Circa 1653-1680: Potomac Parish

Circa 1664-1680: Upper Parish (north) and Lower Parish (south)

Circa 1680-1702: Stafford Parish

1702-1776: St. Paul’s Parish (north)

1702-1785: Overwharton Parish (south)

1731: Hamilton Parish formed from land that transferred from Stafford Co to Prince William Co when Prince William Co formed

1776: Brunswick Parish formed in King George Co from Hanover Parish in 1732. A part was added to Stafford Co, when its boundary with King George was altered in 1776.

Dr. Edward Maddox bequeathed about 500 acres to his local Stafford Parish minister (Rev. Waugh) in 1694. This land was along the Passapatanzy Creek, just south of Marlborough Town.  The acreage would form the Overwharton Parish glebe.


Cornelius Maddox likely arrived in Maryland before 1680


Cornelius Maddox is regularly described by genealogists as having arrived in Maryland in 1680, based on a 9 July 1680 claim made by the merchant John Reddich/Redich/Reddick for transporting Cornelius and 19 other “transportees” (Maryland Patents Liber WC2, Folio 199, 9 July 1680).  However, John Reddich’s claim is likely an aggregation of these 20 transportees’ obligations.  These 20 transportees almost certainly did not arrive together on 9 July 1680.  Instead, the transportees probably arrived in the years before 1680, based on typical claim patterns at the time (“The Five George Masons: Patriots and Planters of Virginia and Maryland.”  Copeland, Pamela and MacMaster, Richard.  University Press of Virginia: Charlottesville, 1975. pp. 10&23.).

John Reddich was exercising the Colonial headright system, which rewarded sponsors of immigrants’ travel into the Colonies by providing 50 acres for each transportee’s arrival.  By claiming 20 headrights, including his own name, Reddich would have earned a 1,000 acre land grant from the Maryland Calverts.

The year 1680 would have been one of the worst times to arrive in the Maryland Colony.  The Colony was dealing with Catholic-Protestant upheaval, Indian territorial fights, and – most important for a merchant like Cornelius – a tobacco market recession.

Life after the Revolution



The Maryland Society of Sons of the American Revolution have provided the Maryland General Assembly Assessment Record for Charles County, 1783 (and other years), providing insights into the conditions of the Maddoxes’ life at the time…  Importantly, all of these Maddox sites were listed in the Durham Parish section of the tax list, meaning that the Maddoxes on this list probaby would have attended the Durham Parish church called Christ Church or Ironsides).

Benjamin Maddox is listed on p. 147 as owner of Posey’s Chance, 100 acres valued at 50 (pounds?), with a small dwelling house, corn house and meal house on site. (Page ref: msa_s1161_scm871-0561)

Leonard Maddox is listed on p. 144 as owner of Horn Fair, 150 acres valued at 75, with small dwelling house on site.

Polly Maddox is listed on p. 144 as owner of Hornfair “pt” (probably the land called Hornfair Addition in other documents), 30 acres valued at 15, in “poor forrest” with a small house on site.

John Maddox is listed on p. 147 as owner of Planters Delight and Renewment, with various houses, and on p. 148 as owner of Reserve.  He seems to have been doing the best of the lot.

Rhody Maddox is listed on p. 143 as owner of Fo-nd Hill, 33 acres, very poor quality, and on p. 140 as owner of Blue Plains “pt”, 88 acres, very poor quality with small dwelling house.

Edward Maddox is listed on p. 140 as owner of Blue Plains “pt”, 179 acres with a “sorry” dwelling and kitchen, tobacco house and corn house.

General Washington, General Smallwood, Daniel St Thomas Jennifer, and George Mason owned land in the same area.

Click to access Charles_Co_MD1783OPT.pdf

Click to access Charles_Co_MD1782OPT.pdf

Edward Maddoxes in Colonial Virginia

In addition to our Edward Maddox, a few other Edward Maddoxes appear in Colonial-era documents, potentially conflating the identity of our Edward.  They deserve more research:

One Maddox genealogist claimed about 10 years ago that Edward Maddox’s father was Thomas Maddox (Lord Scethrog), who arrived in Jamestown in 1620 and died in 1623.  The link to this Lord Scethrog would bring us back to the 7th century in Wales.  His claim has proliferated on and other sites, and by now has become a standard claim among other family researchers.  It is true that a Thomas Maddox died in the Jamestown area in 1623, but he is not described as a lord or by any other titles, and nobody has yet proven our Edward’s link to this Thomas.  (Source:

The same genealogist claims that Edward Maddox is first found in the Virginia Colony “in 1642 Charles City Co., VA, with an unknown amount of acreage next to Joseph Royall’s 600 acres in West Sherley/Shirley Hundred on James River to Dickinans Creek. … [Source, Land Patent to Joseph Royall, August 20, 1642, Land Office Patents No. 1, 1623-1643, pg. 790].”  The genealogist does not explain why this might be our Edward.  Is it possible that our Edward made an initial effort in Virginia, returned to England in the 1650s where we know he had children, and then came back to Maryland in 1668?  (Source:

An Edward Maddox is listed as a servant “3 tymes” to Lawrence Dameron on 340 acres “butting southeast upon the head of Tanx Yeococomico River,” possibly in circa 1652, on page 258 of Nell Marion Nugent’s Cavaliers and Pioneers: Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants 1623-1666. Vol. I (1934; reprint, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1991).  It’s unclear who this Edward is or what “3 tymes” means.

The genealogist claiming that Edward’s father is Thomas also claims that Edward Maddox owned land in Jamaica in 1670, according to a census available at  However, this was not a list of land owners – it was a census of permanent residents in Jamaica with their families.  Wouldn’t residence in Jamaica be impossible for someone already living in Maryland, which we have proven?

Finally, the records of Munslow Parish in Shropshire, England, list an Edward Maddox, buried on 10 October 1657, and an Alice Maddox, widow, buried on 8 February 1662. This is the same parish where our Edward’s children were baptized, and where he was married to two wives.  Could this Edward (d. 1657) be the father of our Edward?